Wishing you knew more about Aboriginal culture? Search no more.
Get key foundational knowledge about Aboriginal culture in a fun and engaging way.
This is no ordinary resource: It includes a fictional story, quizzes, crosswords and even a treasure hunt.
Stop feeling bad about not knowing. Make it fun to know better.
- Percentage of surveyed Australians who believe Australia Day has always been held on 26 January. 
- Percentage who could accurately name the historical event that occurred on 26 January. 
26th January 1788 - Australia Day
January 26, 1788 was the date on which Captain Arthur Phillip took formal possession of the colony of New South Wales and raised the British flag for the first time in Sydney Cove.
In the early 1880s the day was known as 'First Landing', 'Anniversary Day' or 'Foundation Day'.
In 1946 the Commonwealth and state governments agreed to unify the celebrations on January 26 and call it 'Australia Day'. The day became a public holiday in 1818 (its 30th anniversary).
Before 1994 Australia Day was the closest Monday to January 26 to ensure a long weekend. (This tells you a lot about Australians' priorities!)
Why do we celebrate Australia Day?
Since 1994 all states and territories celebrate Australia Day together on the actual day. On this day ceremonies welcome new citizens or honour people who did a great service.
On the fun side are BBQs, contests, parades, performances, fireworks and more.
A National Australia Day Council, founded in 1979, views Australia Day as "a day to reflect on what we have achieved and what we can be proud of in our great nation," and a "day for us to re-commit to making Australia an even better place for the generations to come".
Australia Day Twitter handles
Where can I celebrate Australia Day with Aboriginal people?
- Adelaide organises Survival at the National Aboriginal Cultural Institute, Tandanya, at Semaphore.
- Brisbane Check if there is an Invasion Day gathering in front of Parliament House and a protest march (this is sometimes advertised on Facebook).
- Canberra invites you to learn about Aboriginal culture and storytelling with dance and music in Commonwealth Park and at Australia Day Festival at the National Museum of Australia.
- Melbourne holds the Share the Spirit festival in the Treasury Gardens (since 2002), and another Survival Day celebration in Borthwick Park, Belgrave.
- New South Wales celebrates the Saltwater Freshwater Festival at 10 rotating locations (Coffs Harbour, Taree, Karuah and others).
- Perth has an event called Birak Concert (Birak is the Noongar season for December and January; previously called Too Solid) in the Supreme Court Gardens. Survival concerts have been held in Perth since 2000.
- Sydney celebrates Yabun since 2003. It means "song with a beat" in the language of the Eora, the original people of the Sydney region. The event is held in Victoria Park.
Check also sites of organisations that support Aboriginal people, such as Amnesty International.
Things you probably didn't know about Australia Day
Let's travel through time and discover a few myths and facts about January 26 you might not know :
- We only celebrate a national Australia Day since 1994. Australia Day wasn't consistently celebrated on the 26th of January as a public holiday in all states and territories until 1994, even though the name 'Australia Day' dates back to the early 1900s.
- The first Australia Day was a response to Australia's involvement in World War I at a time when the country was shaping a national identity. The day was set to 30 July 1915.
- Captain Arthur Phillip didn't land in Australia on 26 January. He first landed in Australia between the 18th and 20th of January 1788 in Botany Bay. But because he couldn't find fresh water there, he sailed into Sydney Cove on the 26th where he found Tank Stream -- problem solved.
- 26 January 1824: The first mixed-race marriage. The first sanctioned marriage between an Aboriginal person and a convict occurred, by chance, on the 26th January 1824. Maria was the sister of Colebee who was captured, along with Bennelong, in 1789. She married Robert Lock, an illiterate, convict carpenter from England. This was the first legal Aboriginal-British marriage in the colony. She was survived by nine children.
- 1888: The Premier who knew. When Henry Parkes, the then-Premier of NSW, was planning the upcoming 1888 Centenary celebrations, he was asked what - if anything - was being planned for Aboriginal people, to which Parkes retorted, "And remind them that we have robbed them?" His harsh, but truthful response came almost 100 years before Prime Minister Paul Keating's Redfern Speech, another rare, honest statement by a politician.
- Day of Mourning. On 26 January 1938, Aboriginal people protested against Australia Day and called it a 'Day of Mourning'.
- A forced reenactment. For the 150th Anniversary, Aboriginal people were forced to participate in a reenactment of the landing of the First Fleet under Captain Arthur Phillip. Aboriginal people living in Sydney had refused to take part so organisers brought in men from Menindee, in western NSW, and kept them locked up at the Redfern Police Barracks stables until the re-enactment took place. On the day itself, they were made to run up the beach away from the British – an inaccurate version of events.
- 26 January 1972: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is established. Four Aboriginal men (Michael Anderson, Billie Craigie, Bert Williams and Tony Coorey) set up a beach umbrella on the lawns opposite Parliament House in Canberra in protest against the alienation of Aboriginal people by the government.
- Harbour Bridge march. On 26 January 1988, up to 40,000 Aboriginal people (from as far away as Arnhem Land in the NT) and their supporters marched from Redfern Park to a public rally at Hyde Park and then on to Sydney Harbour to mark the 200th anniversary of invasion. It was the largest protest since the 1970s.
- The Aboriginal flag on the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It wasn't until 2013 that the Aboriginal flag and the Australian flag were raised together on Sydney Harbour Bridge for Australia Day.
The meaning of Australia Day for Aboriginal people
To many Aboriginal Australians there is little to celebrate and it is a commemoration of a deep loss. Loss of their sovereign rights to their land, loss of family, loss of the right to practice their culture.
"Australia Day is 26 January, a date whose only significance is to mark the coming to Australia of the white people in 1788. It's not a date that is particularly pleasing for Aborigines," says Aboriginal activist Michael Mansell . "The British were armed to the teeth and from the moment they stepped foot on our country, the slaughter and dispossession of Aborigines began."
Aboriginal people call it 'Invasion Day', 'Day of Mourning', 'Survival Day' or, since 2006, 'Aboriginal Sovereignty Day'. The latter name reflects that all Aboriginal nations are sovereign and should be united in the continuous fight for their rights.
Mansell believes that Australia celebrates "the coming of one race at the expense of another" .
"Australia is the only country that relies on the arrival of Europeans on its shores as being so significant it should herald the official national day," he says . "The USA does not choose the arrival of Christopher Columbus as the date for its national day. Like many other countries its national day marks independence."
From an outside perspective one might think that Aboriginal people embrace the day to protest. But that is not necessarily so.
Aboriginal woman Professor Jakelin Troy is the Director of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research at the University of Sydney. "We shouldn't have to be marching and protesting and making big political commentaries in order to get recognition - that should be built into this day,” she says. “There should be, in all the advertising that goes out about Australia Day...it shouldn't be this frivolous, frothy sort of stuff about barbecues and coloured towels and spending the day at the beach. It should be, you know what does Australia Day mean for all Australians?" 
A real Australian is someone who knows where they really, really come from. — Bart Willoughby, Aboriginal musician 
Poem: Australia Day 2014
I am not black I am not white I am not wrong I am not right I am now here Not been before My ancestors Are here no more I am not black I am not white I am not wrong I am not right Their spirit lives in every way Always will unto this day They are so proud and love their land Traditional custodians will stand I am not black I am not white I am not wrong I am not right We have so much to offer all Generations past still call This great land of ours abounds Where harmony and peace are found I am not black I am not white I am not wrong I am not right Proud and true is who we are Some from here and some from far Help each other the best we can That makes us ALL Australian.
Poem by Sandra Gaal Hayman.
At the time Captain Cook came to Australia there were three legally recognised principles that governed the taking over or acquiring new land, according to 18th Century English and International common law:
- conquest, by the declaration of war;
- treaty, negotiated after victory in war; or,
- occupation by absence of presence on the land by people, land belonging to no one, also known as the terra nullius principle.
- Which of the above do you think applies to what happened in Australia?
- In the case that you selected, what are the consequences for Aboriginal people?
- What are the consequences for how non-Aboriginal people in Australia think about their country's history?
Day of Mourning
On Australia Day's 150th anniversary, in 1938, William Cooper, a member of the Aboriginal Progressive Association, declared the day a "Day of Mourning", alluding to the annual re-enactment of Phillip's landing.
Aboriginal people refused to participate in the re-enactment because it included chasing away a party of Aboriginal people (which, by the way, had been carted to this event against their will).
Cooper and his fellow Aboriginal men Jack Patten and William Ferguson organised a conference to grieve the collective loss of freedom and self-determination of Aboriginal communities as well as those killed during and after European settlement in 1788.
Finally, by 1988, the re-enactments were discontinued. This same year was named a Year of Mourning by and for the Australian Aboriginal people.
On Australia Day Aboriginal people mourn their forbears who suffered and perished during colonisation.
Read what Aboriginal poet and Bayili woman Zelda Quakawoot thinks about the Day of Mourning and Australia Day :
"Historically the 26th of January has always been marked as our Day of Mourning. There is so much mental turmoil about Australian pride on this day. Not all Australians feel that sense of pride[,] and cultural diversity becomes a problem...
"There are layers of arrivals to this country. On Australia Day... it is difficult to identify the pride in the First Nations of this country, or even in the ways other cultures have become a part of this country’s make-up.
"The day historically is often dominated by loud mouthed drunkenness. It never feels like a celebration of cultural and social achievements for my families or other Aboriginal families.
"Aboriginal people did not and have never said 'no' to anyone entering this country, whether it was for trade or refuge. History tells us this through the Maccassans from Indonesia, who travelled quite regularly to the northern parts of Australia for trepang, and traded other goods and services many hundreds of years before Captain Cook landed."
We all still suffer from the life-draining, over-legislated madness called British Australia, which never seems to abate to the reason of sound voices or even democracy. Then they expect us to join in their triumphant dances over our ancestors' graves each January 26. — Phill Moncrieff, Aboriginal musician 
Why Australia Day is a day of mourning to me
Nakkiah Lui is a young Gamillaroi and Torres Strait Islander woman from Mount Druitt, western Sydney. She explains why she cannot celebrate Australia Day :
"I'm an Aboriginal woman in her 20s who cruises dating websites, but it’s only four generations back that my family felt the direct consequences of foreigners invading our land.
"There's my great-great grandmother, who survived a massacre; my great grandfather, who was forced back to the mission after his father died and wasn't allowed to own land; my grandfather, who was given "dog tags" dictating he was an "honorary white man" after he returned from being a prisoner of war in World War II; my mother, who was encouraged to not finish high school because she was Aboriginal.
"This is why, for us, Australia Day is a day of mourning. It is not a day to go over to my friends' to sit in a blow up pool and get drunk, and it’s definitely not a day to wear red, white and blue while waving a flag with a Union Jack and a Southern Cross on it."
"I refuse to celebrate, and every Australia Day my heart is broken as I am reminded that in the eyes of many, I am not welcome on my own land," she says.
Survival Day, Invasion Day
In 1992 the first Survival Day concert was held in Sydney. These concerts are often staged at places with great Aboriginal significance, for example La Perouse or Redfern. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal artists play music or dance, there are information, arts and crafts stalls, and you can buy food and bush tucker.
Survival Day has become one of the biggest Aboriginal cultural events that is staged throughout Australia. In all major cities you can visit alternative concerts where mainly Aboriginal people gather.
The name Survival Day expresses the fact that Aboriginal culture is still strong and many Aboriginal people's identities are positive and alive despite all what happened since colonisation.
We call it Survival Day. Whitefellas pretty much celebrating invasion and killing our mob off—that's what it feels like for us. — Warrick Wright from the Aboriginal band Local Knowledge
However, to many Aboriginal people there is little to celebrate and it is a commemoration of a deep loss. Loss of their sovereign rights to their land and the right to practice their culture. Many of them rather call 26th January Invasion Day.
Well boys and girls, it's January in Australia, and we all know what that means: family holidays, sizzling barbecues and blatant racism. — Tom Ballard, columnist at the Sun Herald 
Video: January 26
January 26 is a rap song about the annual frustration many Aboriginal Australians feel from the "farce of a holiday", says Aboriginal musician Adam Briggs. Warning: Explicit lyrics!
Bryan Andy on Australia Day
"I call Australian day 'Invasion Day' or 'Survival Day'. The apology (by PM Rudd) was the first step, but there are still many many steps to go.
There's a saying that white Australia has a black history. It can sort of be taken in the sense that it has been a dark or unfortunate history, but it's also true in the sense that we were here first. Sometimes people think that Australian started 200 years ago with the invasion."
"While Australians celebrate a day that represents a history of booze, barbecues, bloodshed and theft, we continue our resistance," says Jidah Clark, youth delegate of the Aboriginal Provisional Government . "Despite the mindless nationalism of some Australians, we remember the invasion. This is invasion day."
We won't stop, we won't go away / We won't celebrate Invasion Day! — Chant during protests on Australia Day 2012 
January 26th marked the beginning of the murders, the rapes and the dispossession. It is no date to celebrate. — Michael Mansell, National Aboriginal Alliance spokesman 
Our Survival Day
Another Australia Day has arrived Celebrations across our land Guess they don't think what we've been through Our ancestors tried to hold our land Keep us together to protect our clans Barbecues burning and sweet tasting wine The white man's celebrating what belongs to us But we're here in the background Being proud of who we are Our red, black and yellow unites us all Saying we have survived another century Of white man's invasion
In a controversial move the City of Sydney Council decided in July 2011 to use the word 'invasion' in one of its official documents . Many white Australians were affronted by the word and felt it described the past, not the present.
But, as some commentators pointed out, "if the word 'invasion' is to have any meaning, then of course it has to apply to what happened. It does not mean,... [that we have] to 'uninvade' this land." 
Remember, 'invasion' was only used to describe the arrival of the British in 1788, not the whole 200-years plus. — Larissa Behrendt, Aboriginal law professor 
Let's get the facts right and the facts are that this country was invaded. — Chris Lawrence, Noongar man 
An Aboriginal perspective: "We will mourn the loss of our land"
Aboriginal woman Nala Mansell-McKenna reflects on the meaning of Australia Day for Aboriginal people .
"On January 26 Aborigines from across the country will mourn, just as we do every Anzac Day.
"We will mourn the deaths of the 50 Aboriginal men, women and children who were massacred at Risdon Cove while hunting kangaroo; we will mourn the deaths of those shot in cold blood while bathing in the waters of the Jordan River lagoon; we will mourn the loss of our land, the stolen children, the remains of our ancestors held in overseas institutions and everything else that our people have had to endure since the arrival of the white man on January 26, 1788.
"We will also call for the race-based celebrations of January 26 to come to a close and for a new date to be chosen, so that we can all proudly wave our flags and celebrate the wonderful country that we now share."
Towards a new Australia Day
Do you think the date of Australia Day should be changed?
- Don't know
SMH survey 28/1/2017 (1,727 votes)
Do you support changing the date of Australia Day from 26 January?
- Strongly oppose
The Guardian 5/9/2017 (1,784 votes)
Many Australians recognise that Australia Day is no longer an appropriate day for celebrations and call for a new day which includes all Australians. Some suggest to rename Australia Day to 'Arrival Day'.
People happy with the current Australia Day base their arguments often on racist grounds. Surprisingly, many show a lack of knowledge and awareness of the controversy surrounding Australia Day.
They don't care about the particular date and just enjoy the holiday. Any controversy around moving Australia Day to another day would most likely soon be forgotten.
Others believe moving Australia Day would "elevate" one culture above another and "exacerbate... tensions in the community". Thousands who celebrate the day would deliver a "defiant response". Taking issue with a single day means to "reject colonial history in its entirety". 
Aboriginal activist Michael Mansell believes a new public holiday should celebrate an inclusive Australia, but he calls for a treaty first.
"There may come a time... when a treaty has been made between Aborigines and Australia to include a land settlement, designated seats in the parliament and our own assembly... The date of the agreement could mark a new national date for celebration, where both peoples acknowledge each other's rights and aspirations, thus avoiding the current 'whites only' celebrations." 
Change is coming
Climate change is slow and denied by some – traits shared by the political climate change that will see Australia Day moved or replaced.
In 2010, Mick Dodson, Aboriginal Law Professor and Australian of the Year 2009, expressed his hopes for a new day. "90% of people are saying Australia Day should be inclusive of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures. I firmly believe that some day we will choose a date that is a comprehensive and inclusive date for all Australians." 
A new poll, also by the Sydney Morning Herald, more than half a year after the one you see in the section above, showed respondents slowly changing their mind. The "yes" vote increased by 3% to 41%, opponents lost one per cent (51%). 
In November 2013 Flinders Island council (Tasmania) decided to end its January 26 celebrations and instead support the Furneaux Islands Festival, held over 3 days in January and organised by the Flinders Island Aboriginal Association Incorporated (FIAAI). 
On 24 August 2016 full Fremantle council (WA) voted 11-1 in favour of not hosting the city's usual fireworks event the next year "as a sign of respect to the local Noongar peoples and in recognition of changing attitudes towards January 26 as the national day of celebration."  Instead the council wanted to consult with the city's Aboriginal elders and business community about "the most appropriate way to mark the occasion". Unfortunately the council had to submit to pressure from the federal government to reinstate its citizenship ceremony on Australia Day. 
City of Yarra councillors in Melbourne on 15 August 2017 voted unanimously to no longer refer to 26 January as Australia Day in all official documents, but "January 26" instead, to stop citizenship ceremonies on that date, and to support the campaign to change Australia Day in cognition of it being a day of distress for many Aboriginal people. In response, the federal government stripped the council of the power to hold citizenship ceremonies. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull declared the vote to be "utterly out of step with Australian values" and accused the council of seeking to divide Australia. "To change the date of Australia Day would be to turn our back on Australian values," he said. 
Neighbouring Darebin council followed on 21 August 2017 with a vote of 6 to 2 in favour  and Moreland City Council (a neighbour of Darebin) on 13 September 2017, although it will still hold citizenship ceremonies. In 2015, Moreland moved its annual citizen awards ceremony from January 26 to October out of respect for Aboriginal people. 
Triple-J, which used to count down the "Hottest 100" songs on Australia Day, moved this program to the fourth weekend of January for the first time in 2018 because of the "increasing debate around 26 January". 
On 20 September 2018, the Byron Shire Council announced it would hold its next Australia Day ceremony on 25 January. "26 January does not reflect the importance of the first Australians and their history,” it said in a media release. Moving the ceremony was "to acknowledge the concerns of our Aboriginal community with respect to the date of 26 January whilst still honouring the needs and values of those who wish to celebrate our successes as a nation." 
This isn't about banning barbecues, it's about respect for the world's oldest living culture... This is a gesture of respect and an important step in healing. — Samantha Ratnam, Moreland Councillor 
Several cities and some states in the USA have replaced Columbus Day (second Monday in October) with Indigenous People's Day because they considered Columbus to be "a symbol of genocide for native peoples in North America". They include Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Seattle, Minneapolis, Anchorage (Alaska), Phoenix, Portland (Oregon) and Albuquerque (New Mexico); and South Dakota, Hawaii, Vermont and Minnesota. 
Finding a new day to celebrate
Suggestions for a replacement day for Australia Day are as numerous as there are opinions. Here is a collection of suggestions I came across (tell me if you know about another):
- 1 January. The anniversary of the day Australia technically came into being — the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901.
- Monday closest to 26 January. As early as 1930 the Australian Natives Association (made up by white Australian men) campaigned to make the Monday closest to January 26 a public holiday for Australia Day. 
- Last Friday of January. This way the date is not tied to any historical date and marks the end of the long summer holidays.
- 28 January. When Western Australia’s Fremantle Council decided to cancel its Australia Day event in 2017 they held it two days later.
- 13 February. On 13 February 2008 the government apologised to the Stolen Generations.
- 2 March. On this day in 1986 prime minister Bob Hawke and Queen Elizabeth signed the Australia Act 1986 which made Australia a fully independent and sovereign nation.
- 20 March. On 20 March 1913 Canberra was declared as Australia's capital.
- 11 April. While over several decades many racist elements of the White Australia act were repealed, it wasn't until 11 April 1973 that Gough Whitlam's government finally abolished all notes of racism. 
- 19 April. 'Advance Australia Fair' was proclaimed as Australia's National Anthem on 19 April 1984.
- 25 April – Anzac Day. Some argue that Anzac Day honours our history already and can be renamed to National Day. 
- 8 May. Suggested by Australian comedian Jordan Raskopoulos in a cheeky tweet: "Can we just have Australia Day on May 8? May8? M8! Maaaaaate!" 
- 9 May. This day marks the date of the first meeting of the Commonwealth parliament (1901), on which Australia became a self-governing and independent commonwealth.
- 27 May. Following one of the few successful referenda on 27 May 1967, Aboriginal people were finally allowed constitutional rights and counted as citizens.
- 3 June – Mabo Day. On the day the High Court overturned 'terra nullius' and acknowledged native Aboriginal land rights.
- NAIDOC Week. Some suggest to make one day during NAIDOC Week (the first full week of July) a new public holiday.
- 1 September. First calendar day of spring, which is also called Wattle Day, and Australia's colours, green and gold, come from the wattle.
- 1 December. Another cheeky suggestion – 1 December is the first calendar day of summer.
Check out Pride or Pain? – 7 Things to Think about This Australia Day for a list of facts about the date.
I would however make a strong plea for a change of date. Let us find a day on which we can all feel included, in which we can all participate equally, and can celebrate with pride our common Australian identity. — Dr Lowitja O’Donoghue, Aboriginal Australian of the Year 1984 
Aboriginal hiphop musician Jeswon (Thundamentals) expressed his hope for a change of Australia Day in the 2017 song 'Change The Date' which is a collaboration of many artists. 
Some say what's in a date? Some say what's in a name? Australia day Invasion day Homie that's one and the same And I ain't pointing no fingers I ain't throwing no blame Just saying that we can do better You know that it's time for a change
And here's my own reflection on that discussion (to the tune of Advance Australia Fair):
Australians let us all discuss About Australia Day. Some want to have this day removed Or should it simply stay? First People lost loved ones and land And we should own our share. In honesty we must proclaim: Australia Day’s not fair. Let’s face the facts history brings: Australia Day’s not fair.
David Beniuk - January 26
Acclaimed songwriter David Beniuk questions why January 26th has been picked to be celebrated as Australia Day in his memorable song:
You find plenty of history of Australia Day on the site of the Australia Day Council of New South Wales.