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Aboriginal health services emerge
Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service was established in 1971 as Australia's first Aboriginal community-controlled health service. 
"Redfern was the spark that began the movement of Aboriginal communities creating and running their own health services providing comprehensive primary health care," marvels Justin Mohamed, chairperson of the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO). 
Back then, Medicare did not exist and the only option for most Aboriginal families living in inner Sydney was to attend an emergency department or rely on the goodwill of local general practitioners. 
Many Aboriginal people experienced racism in the health system and wider community, and poverty was a major barrier to attending general practice or purchasing medicines.
Initially a ‘shopfront’ volunteer service on Regent street in Redfern, Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service was staffed by non-Aboriginal doctors, nurses, nuns and students. Shirley Smith, affectionately known as Mum Shirl, was the first field officer, and the late Professor Fred Hollows was instrumental in signing up medical students, doctors and volunteers. 
Within a year of opening, Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service had become so popular that demand outstripped supply. The federal government made funding available in 1973 which helped the service grow into a wide range of clinics and services, including medical, dental, public health and outreach services.
Between 1971 and 2011 Aboriginal health services grew from one Aboriginal community to over 150 services run by communities. 
The service is free for all Aboriginal patients. The majority of its patients are local, but many come from rural and remote communities and visit the service when in Sydney to get their chronic health issues addressed.
There are now over 40 Aboriginal health services located across Australia. View a map of Aboriginal Medical Services in Australia.
Aboriginal people taking control of their health at all levels is the most effective way to overcome the barriers to better health. — Justin Mohamed, chairperson, NACCHO 
Video: Australia's Aboriginal-controlled health services
Watch a 25-minute video where Matthew Cooke, Chair of the National Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO) interviews doctors, CEOs, board members, health workers and community members.
Second Aboriginal-controlled health service: Brisbane, QLD
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service operating in Brisbane is the second Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Australia,  operating since the 1970s.
The service is proud of its success: 
- Patient visits to their doctors doubled from around 9,000 in 2009 to more than 18,000 in 2011.
- In 2011 they did more than 5 times as many health checks as in 2008-09.
- More than 2,000 new patients came to the health service in 2011.
- Dentist visits were up 50% in the same period.
- The service opened 2 new clinics in Logan and Caboolture.
- The clinics created 28 new health jobs for Aboriginal people.
Solutions to Aboriginal health challenges
Every year, Aboriginal health statistics paint a dark picture and progress seems to be minimal or absent.
But there are working solutions, unreported by the media and more often than not with no support from governments.
These are community-driven and managed programs where local Aboriginal people develop and implement solutions for their own communities. Local environments can be vastly different, and blanket solutions from governments might impede, or even prohibit, the success of local solutions.
Such programs can be effective in improving physical activity levels and nutrition among Aboriginal people. Positive results include stable diabetes rates, significant falls in smoking rates, cholesterol levels and blood pressure, "near-perfect" immunisation rates for babies, increased birth weights and fewer cases of foetal alcohol syndrome. 
Ideally such community programs should form long-term relationships with sponsors. "Strategies that have been found to work to strengthen Indigenous organisational capacity include long-term partnerships between government and Indigenous people," says Dr Fadwa Al-Yaman, spokesperson of Closing the Gap Clearinghouse, a government-funded health initiative. 
But in reality things are different. Even award-winning organisations which have won "a swag of awards", including the Premier’s Reconciliation Award, can struggle to attract the funding they need  and suddenly cease operation.
We just need to get away from election-cycle policy and we need to listen to what communities are saying. — Josh Stafford. director of nursing, Lockhart River clinic, Cape York