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What is the the Uluru Statement from the Heart?
The Statement is a document Aboriginal people from all over Australia agreed on. In it they express that they are a sovereign people, and what they want the government to do to recognise and support this sovereignty. It also comments on the social difficulties faced by Aboriginal people.
It is not the first time Aboriginal people crafted such a document, but probably the first time Aboriginal people form a united position and a single key recommendation.
The Uluru Statement from the Heart stands as the most important piece of political writing produced in Australia in at least two decades. — Australian Broadcasting Commission 
Who wrote the Statement?
From 23 to 26 May 2017, more than 250 Aboriginal delegates from all over Australia gathered at Uluru, Northern Territory, on the lands of the Anangu people, at the First Nations National Constitutional Convention. They had previously been selected at gatherings in 12 regions around Australia.
Their task was to identify amendments required for constitutional recognition of Aboriginal people.
Key elements of the Uluru Statement from the Heart
- Sovereignty. Acknowledgement that Aboriginal tribes were the first sovereign nations of the Australian continent, that sovereignty was never ceded and that it co-exists with the sovereignty of the Crown.
- Constitutional reform. Constitutional reforms would empower Aboriginal people to manage their own affairs and righten the current skewed statistics for e.g. incarceration or suicide.
- Makarrata Commission. A Makarrata (Treaty) Commission would have two roles: Develop a national framework that would permit each sovereign Aboriginal nation state to negotiate their own respective treaty; and oversee a process of truth-telling. Similar commissions are common throughout the world and have been established in countries such as Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. 
- Truth-telling, a process that exposes the full extent of the past injustices experienced by Aboriginal people. It would allow all Australians to understand Aboriginal and Australian history, and assist in moving towards genuine reconciliation.
- Voice to Parliament. Establishment of an elected voice to the Parliament with constitutional backing. This voice would be empowered to give Aboriginal people a say in laws that affect them. It would be a voice that cannot be removed unless by a future constitutional referendum.
It is important to note that the Voice to Parliament should be guaranteed by the constitution. Previous Aboriginal representative bodies (such as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, ATSIC) that had been set up only in laws were easily abolished by successive governments depending on their priorities. The constitutional guarantee aims to provide stability and longevity, but requires a referendum to change the Constitution. The Uluru Statement is deliberately scarce on how to implement this voice, as future legislation would set up details, functions, powers and processes.
In 1967 we were counted, in 2017 we seek to be heard. — From the Uluru Statement from the Heart
What led to the Statement?
The Statement was the culmination of intensive 6-month dialogues between December 2016 and May 2017 in 13 regions around Australia with one hundred participants each.
Dialogues were held in Adelaide, Brisbane, Broome, Cairns, Canberra, Dubbo, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Ross River, Sydney and Thursday Island.
All of these gatherings went over 3 days, were designed and led by Aboriginal people, and organised by the Indigenous Steering Committee of the Referendum Council.
Armed with information about the Constitution and the history of constitutional reform, participants were able to discuss and assess 5 different reform options in an informed manner, and to explain what meaningful reform would look like for their communities.
The five reform options discussed were: 
- A statement that acknowledges the First Peoples of Australia;
- A voice to Parliament, i.e. a new group of Aboriginal people who give advice to the Parliament about Aboriginal issues;
- Replace or update Section 51 ("race power") of the Constitution to remove the race bias;
- Remove Section 25 from the Constitution which allows States to ban people of any race from voting;
- Add a new section in the Constitution to stop Parliament from being able to make laws that discriminate against people of any race or culture.
At the end of the gatherings, delegates confirmed a statement of their discussion and selected representatives for the Uluru meeting.
The dialogues were preceded by a long-running political debate over how to achieve constitutional reform and how to recognise Aboriginal people meaningfully and not just symbolically. For many decades Aboriginal advocates have asked to be heard, and have a say, in political decisions made about their rights and interests.
The Uluru Statement joins other important statements Aboriginal people made, calling for recognition and sovereignty, for example the 1963 Yirrkala Bark petitions, 1988 Barunga Statement or 2016 Redfern Statement.
How was the Statement received?
About a month after the Uluru meeting, the Referendum Council delivered its final report to both the prime minister and the leader of the opposition.
It recommended a referendum to include a representative body (voice to Parliament) in the Australian Constitution and a national declaration of recognition outside of the Constitution as a "symbolic statement of recognition". 
Members of the Referendum Council presented the Uluru Statement – now a large painted and signed canvas – personally to the prime minister and opposition leader at the Garma Festival in north-east Arnhem Land in August 2017.
Prime minister's response
After "carefully" considering the Uluru Statement from the Heart, the prime minister believed that a voice to Parliament would not be "either desirable or capable of winning acceptance in a referendum" and rejected the Statement five months after it was issued.
He feared that the representative body "would inevitably become seen as a third chamber of Parliament".  He also noted the scarcity of details around representation and election of members. Finally, he did not believe that "such a radical change to our constitution’s representative institutions has any realistic prospect of being supported by a majority of Australians".
The opposition leader backed a constitutionally-enshrined 'Voice to Parliament', a national declaration of recognition and truth-telling commission.
He proposed a bipartisan parliamentary committee to finalise the recommendations and expressed hope to complete a referendum proposal by the end of 2017. 
The Australian Greens "strongly support" the Uluru Statement from the Heart in a media release in May 2017. 
Australian mining giants BHP and Rio Tinto released a joint statement in January 2019 supporting the Uluru Statement From the Heart, "because all of our operations are on Aboriginal lands". The two businesses were the first Australian companies to publicly endorse the statement.
BHP pledged about $1m to raising awareness among Australians about the Aboriginal voice to parliament. 
The longer I’ve been at BHP, the more certain I’ve become that this great company, like this great country, has unfinished business with the Indigenous peoples of Australia. — Andrew Mackenzie, BHP chief executive 
Video: The Uluru Statement – An idea whose time has come
Dean Parkin, a Quandamooka man from Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), is one of the signatories of the Uluru Statement. In this 20-minute video at TEDx Canberra, he shares his personal experience while working at the Uluru gathering. And he clarifies:
"There's a reason why this Statement is with me on this stage today," he says. "It is not a submission or a petition to the government. It is an invitation to you, the Australian people."
During the gathering at Uluru, each region elected two people, one male and one female, to form the national Uluru Statement Working Group.
The working group is tasked to implement a roadmap and discuss how to achieve the spirit and intent of the Uluru Statement from the Heart.